What is Debt to Income Ratio (DTI)? Simple Answers for 2023

debt to income ratio

A Comprehensive Overview

Debt to income ratio, or DTI, is a crucial metric used by lenders to assess a borrower’s ability to repay a loan. In the context of mortgages, your DTI can directly impact your eligibility for a mortgage loan, the interest rate, and loan terms. This article will dive deep into the concept of DTI, how to calculate it, and its implications on your mortgage application.

Understanding Debt-to-Income Ratio

In simple terms, your debt-to-income ratio is the percentage of your monthly income that goes towards paying your debts. These debts include credit card payments, student loans, car loans, and other monthly obligations. Lenders use your DTI to determine your ability to manage your existing debts and a new mortgage payment. A lower DTI indicates that you have a better financial balance and can comfortably take on a new loan, such as a mortgage.

A variety of mortgage programs have different DTI requirements. For example, conventional loans typically allow a maximum DTI of 43%, while FHA loans may permit a higher DTI, up to 50% in some cases. Understanding your DTI can help you identify the right mortgage program and improve your chances of loan approval.

What Is Debt To Income Ratio

Calculating Your Debt-to-Income Ratio

To calculate your DTI, you’ll need to gather information about your monthly income and debt payments. Here’s a step-by-step process on how to calculate your debt-to-income ratio:

  1. Calculate your total monthly income, including your salary, bonuses, commissions, and any other sources of income.
  2. Add up all your monthly debt payments, such as credit card payments, car loans, student loans, and personal loans.
  3. Divide your total monthly debt payments by your total monthly income.
  4. Multiply the result by 100 to get your debt-to-income ratio as a percentage.

For a more accurate calculation, you can use a debt-to-income ratio calculator.

What is a Good Debt-to-Income Ratio?

A good DTI varies based on the mortgage program and the lender’s requirements. Generally, a DTI of 36% or lower is considered ideal. However, some mortgage programs, like VA loans and USDA loans, may have more flexible DTI requirements.

To improve your chances of getting approved for a mortgage, strive to maintain a low DTI by paying down existing debt or increasing your income. You can also explore mortgage programs with more lenient DTI requirements or consider making a larger down payment to reduce your monthly mortgage obligation.

Mortgage Dti

DTI and Mortgage Approval

Your DTI is an essential factor in the mortgage underwriting process. Lenders use your DTI, along with other factors like credit score, loan-to-value ratio (LTV), and employment history, to determine your eligibility for a mortgage loan. A high DTI can negatively affect your chances of loan approval, as it indicates a higher risk of default. However, even with a high DTI, you may still qualify for a mortgage if you meet other eligibility criteria or choose a mortgage program with more lenient DTI requirements.

Impact of DTI on Mortgage Rates and Terms

A lower DTI can help you secure more favorable mortgage rates and terms, as it signals a lower risk to the lender. On the other hand, a higher DTI may result in higher interest rates, increased mortgage insurance premiums, or the need for a co-signer to strengthen your loan application.

It’s essential to understand that your DTI is not the only factor that determines your mortgage rate and terms. Other factors, such as your credit score, down payment, and the type of mortgage you choose, also play a significant role in the mortgage underwriting process.

Tips to Lower Your Debt-to-Income Ratio

Lowering your DTI can significantly improve your chances of getting approved for a mortgage and securing better loan terms. Here are some tips to help you lower your debt-to-income ratio:

  1. Pay down your existing debts, focusing on high-interest debts first.
  2. Avoid taking on new debt, especially in the months leading up to your mortgage application.
  3. Increase your income by pursuing a promotion, a second job, or a side hustle.
  4. Refinance your existing loans to lower your monthly payments, if possible.
  5. Consider debt consolidation to combine multiple debts into a single, lower monthly payment.
  6. Create a budget and stick to it, prioritizing debt reduction and savings for a down payment.
What Is Dti


Understanding and managing your debt-to-income ratio is a crucial aspect of preparing for a mortgage application. A lower DTI can improve your chances of loan approval, help you secure better interest rates, and make homeownership more affordable. Keep in mind that your DTI is just one of many factors considered by lenders when evaluating your mortgage application. To ensure a smooth application process, be sure to familiarize yourself with other aspects of the mortgage process, such as credit requirements, home appraisal, and closing costs.

Statistics on Debt-to-Income Ratio

To better understand the importance of your debt-to-income ratio, consider the following statistics from reputable government and non-profit sources:

  1. According to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), the Qualified Mortgage (QM) rule generally requires a maximum DTI of 43% for a borrower to be eligible for a mortgage. However, some exceptions and alternative options may apply to certain borrowers.
  2. The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) typically allows a maximum DTI of 43% for their loans, but they may accept higher DTIs up to 50% for borrowers with compensating factors.
  3. The Urban Institute found that, in 2020, approximately 22% of all mortgage loans originated had a DTI above 43%.

Learn More About Mortgage Terms

To better understand mortgage terminology and become well-informed when applying for a loan, visit our Mortgage Terms page. You’ll find comprehensive explanations of various mortgage terms and concepts, helping you navigate the mortgage process with ease and confidence.

Apply for a Loan with Mortgage Rater

When you’re ready to take the next step towards homeownership, Mortgage Rater is here to help. Apply for a loan through our secure online application by visiting https://www.mortgagerater.com/apply/. Our team of experienced mortgage professionals will work with you to find the best mortgage product and terms for your unique financial situation. Don’t wait – start your journey to homeownership with Mortgage Rater today!

Donavon Warren

Donavon Warren

Donavon Warren is a seasoned finance professional with over 20 years of experience. Before embarking into the mortgage industry Donavon attended UCLA. He is the owner of Mortgage Rater, a leading mortgage finance company that offers a range of informational services to clients across the United States. As a finance and mortgage author, Donavon brings his wealth of knowledge and experience to the platform, writing about various topics related to personal finance, investments, home loans, FHA loans, VA loans, 30 Year Fixed rates, no-interest loans, mortgages and more. With his insights and expertise, he aims to educate and empower readers to make informed financial decisions that can help them achieve their financial and mortgage goals. NMLS#2470202
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